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Dynastinae is a subfamily of insects compromising of rhinoceros beetles belonging to the family Scarabaeidae (Scarab beetles)


These incredibly large coleopterans are quite famously known for their large sizes and their uniquely fascinating shapes of their stags in different species their sizes make them one of the largest of beetles, they undergo a complete metamorphosis and their size has been known to measure upto 15 cm. The males in many species have a tendency to fight others in order to catch the attention of females, their large stags are used to keep away potential predators from approaching and to fight other males. They have a wide distribution in several Asian countries and prefer forests as their main habitat.

Morphology[]

Dynastes hercules

The Dynastinae are certainly the largest of beetles, reaching more than 6 in in length, however they are unable to bite or sting. Some species have been known to have claimed the position of one of the strongest insects for being known to lift up to 825 times their own body weight with their large stags. Their common names refer to the physical characteristic horns that are normally possessed by the males of most species in the group. Every species have a large tusk pointing forward and a smaller one beneath the larger one which is shorter in length. The horns are used in fighting other males during mating season, and for digging borrows. The size of the horn is a good indicator of nutrition and physical health of the beetle. The body of an adult rhinoceros beetle is covered by an extremely well reinforced exoskeleton. A pair of thick elytra lie atop another set of membranous wings underneath, allowing the rhinoceros beetle to take flight and escape predators, although not quite as efficiently, in addition to their large sizes. Their best protection from predators is their size and defense. Additionally, since they are mostly nocturnal, they avoid many of their predators during the daytime notably birds, tarantulas, mammals such as racoons and other insect eaters. When the sun sets beneath the clouds, they reveal themselves from their hidings situated underneath logs or in lush green vegetation to camouflage themselves from the fewer predators big enough to eat them. If rhinoceros beetles are disturbed, some can release very loud, ear piercing squeaks. The loud aggressive squeaks are created by rubbing their abdomens against the ends of their elytra like orthopterans. Rhinoceros beetles are relatively resilient. a healthy adult male can live up to 2–3 years. The females rarely live long after they mate.

Agricultural threat[]

Dynastes centaurus

Some species are remarkably destructive to crops and are considered as a major pest, As a larva, they feed on the roots of trees living underneath the ground as a grub. When the adults emerge, Sap sites become a great source of food for most species and they will feed on the sweet sap within the thick barks of trees which they fight for very often, these pests can become a nuisance to orchards and tree plantation sites causing a great inconvenience destroying younger saplings as fully matured adults. Their populations can increase at a rapid pace destroying a tremendous amount of trees on a large scale in the process simultaneously taking over ferocious battles between males of same species.

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