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Chalcosoma chiron males can reach a length of 90–130 mm (3.5–5.1 in), while females grow to 50–60 mm (2.0–2.4 in). Caucasus beetles are the largest of the genus Chalcosoma and one of Asia's largest beetles. They have a striking sexual dimorphism. The male has specialised enormous, curved horns on its head and thorax that it can use to fight with other males to gain mating rights with females. A female is significantly smaller. The elytra of the females have a velvety texture, as they are covered by tiny hairs. When males enter into contests for females, the fighting spirit is as strong as in the Hercules beetle of South America. Because they can be captured throughout the year, the acquisition of these beetles is easy and the price is quite low. Caucasus beetles differ from Atlas beetles (for which they are often mistaken) in that they have a small tooth on their lower horns.


Their grubs go through three molts, and generally live underground for 12–15 months; the larger males remain grubs longer than females. Their pupae live 1–2 months, while the adults live for 3–5 months. Females live longer than males.